Category Archives: America’s Favorite Cars

The Legendary Cadillac, a Classic American Icon – One of our Favorite Vehicles

HOW CADILLAC BECAME “THE STANDARD OF THE WORLD”

 In the photograph above, Henry Leland is pictured standing on the left while Charles Kettering stands beside him on his right.“Founded more than 100 years ago in Detroit, Cadillac has stood for uncompromising performance, daring design and groundbreaking technology. From developing the world’s first electric self-starting engine and pioneering the integration of computer technology into vehicles, to being the first to offer drivers a color other than black and creating the fastest family of production cars with the CTS-V Series, it’s all a part of our history. Learn more about this iconic American brand and how it has shaped—and continues to define—the automotive industry.

 Henry Leland, the man who introduced the Cadillac to the world, (after Henry Ford began it’s work),  is pictured on the left, while Charles Kettering is on the right. The connection with Ford to the Cadillac is kept fairly murky in the company’s history, as Ford later became GM’s biggest competitor.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Side Notes:  How the Battery Ignition was Born

Resource:  Genesis2Scale.com (2015) Retrieved 1/30/2015 http://www.genesis2scale.com/__museum/_gm/_1910/_1913cadillac/1913cadillacmain.htm

“Electrical genius Charles F Kettering worked at National Cash Register (NCR), but tinkered in his barn in his spare time. In his 1909 tinkering, Kettering devised an ignition system for an automobile superior to the ones used at that time. Kettering experimented on a Cadillac automobile, a matter of luck for GM. Automobiles at that time typically used two types of ignition system, battery and magneto, drivers switching from one to the other. Dry cell battery ignition was used at low speeds while magneto ignition used at high speeds, each had its issues otherwise. Kettering devised a holding coil to produce one “fat” spark from the battery ignition. This improved performance at high speed and extended battery life ten times, a great improvement over the limiting 200 miles expected battery life. Kettering then approached Cadillac and in July 1909 Cadillac placed an order for 8,000 ignition sets for the 1910 Cadillac. Kettering remained at NCR, but formed a side business Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO)

In the summer of 1910, a dear friend of Henry Leland’s, automobile producer Byron T Carter, attempted to aid a woman with a stalled engine, a common occurrence. The spark lever was not set to retard and the crank kicked back and broke Carter’s jaw, a hand cranking injury also not too uncommon. Carter later died from pneumonia as a complication from the incident. Shortly afterwards, Kettering approached a grieving Henry Leland suggesting he could develop a self-starter. Leland responded “I’m sorry I ever built an automobile.” “I won’t have Cadillacs hurting people that way.” A practical self-starter was not a new idea. Even RE Olds stated the 1800s Olds Trap included an electric push button starter. Various mechanical and electrical starters were in use, but they were bulky and inefficient. Kettering developed a small, powerful, short-pulsed electric motor with an electrical system which operated at 24 volts in the starting position, then switched to 6 volts running. The starter operated with a small storage battery and outfitted with a generator to keep the battery recharged. With a storage battery and generator on the vehicle, it seemed logical to include electric lights, eliminating the need to refill the acetylene canister and the nuisance of exiting the car to match light the headlights which rain or wind could put out. The electrical system was declared ready on February 27, 1911. The system would first appear in the 1912 Cadillac Model 30. The self starter is one of the most important technological advances of the automobile. It became especially popular with women. The sale of electric automobiles peaked in 1912, the decline influenced by the Kettering self starter.”

 


 

 

1903 Cadillac1900s – Pioneering Interchangeable Parts

In 1902, Henry Leland, a master mechanic and entrepreneur boldly founds Cadillac, naming the new company after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, the founder of Detroit.  In fact, the Cadillac family’s historic coat of arms serves as the inspiration for the company’s Crest.  Six short years after its inception, Cadillac lays the foundation for modern mass production of automobiles by demonstrating the complete interchangeability of its precision parts.  As a result, Cadillac is the first American car to win the prestigious Dewar Trophy from the Royal Automobile Club of England.  Consequently-and-appropriately-Cadillac adopts the slogan “Standard of the World”

 

 

 

Cadillac-Ad-for-First-Electric-Starter-Motor-e1330374083213

 

1910s – Introducing the Electric Self-Starter.

With its Model Thirty, Cadillac debuts “the car with no crank” – the first production car to feature an electric self-starter, ignition and lighting.  Not only does this open up the driving experience to women, it also brings the Dewar trophy back to Detroit, making Cadillac the only car manufacturer to claim the distinction twice.  In 1915, Cadillac introduces the first mass-produced car with a V-Type, water-cooled, eight cylinder (V8) egine which goes on to become a signature of the Cadillac brand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1923 Cadiac

 

 

1920s – Elevating Style and Customization

The Roaring Twenties mark a new phase in the relationship between art and design.  In 1925, Cadillac pioneers the use of lacquer pain and, in 1926, offers customers more than 500 color combinations to choose from at a time when competitors offer dark and drab colors.  Then in 1926, the company recruits Harley Earl to design the 1927 LaSalle convertible coupe, making it the first American car designed by a stylist instead of an engineer.  The result is elegant, flowing lines, chrome-plated fixtures, and an overarching design philosophy that ensures that, by the end of the decade, the name Cadillac is synonymous with beauty and luxury.

 

 

 

cadillac1930s

 

1930s – Making History with the V16

In the height of the Depression, an undaunted Cadillac raises the bar yet again with the world’s first V-type 16-cylinde engine in a passenger car, which becomes on of the first iconic vehicles in Cadillac history.  In the words of a review of the time, the V16 was “so smooth and quiet throughout its range as to make it seem incredible that the car is actually being propelled by exploding gases.” A V-12 version follows, providing an alternative between the signature V8 and the V-16.  By mid-decade Cadillac is manufacturing some 68 body styles.  In 1937, a Cadillac-built V8 proves its worth at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, breaking all previous stock car records.

 

 

 

1940_Cadillac_901940s- Introducing the Cadillac Signature Tail Fins

Shortly after Pearl Harbor, Cadillac discontinues car production and devotes its resources to the war effort.  V8 engines, transmissions and power units are successfully used in M5 light tanks and M8 Howitzer Motor Carriages, helping the company live up to its slogan “Famous in Peace-Distinguished in Battle!”  After the war, Cadillac designer Harley Earl changes the profile of the American automobile once again, this time with the introduction of the tail fin.  Modeled after the Lockheed P-38 “Lightning” fighter plane, the tail fin is destined to become a integral part of American automobile styling for almost 20 years.  Now an industry staple, the first-ever Car of the Year award is presented to Cadillac in 1949, reaffirming the company’s impact on the automotive industry.

 

 

1950's Cadillac

1950s-Making Power Steering the New Standard

Cadillac embraces the post-war boom with open arms in 1950 and 1951 – car production exceeds 100,000 vehicles a year, nearly double that of prewar years.  As an added bonus, V8-powered Cadillacs finish third, tenth and eleventh at the 224 hours of Le Mans, one of the most grueling races in the world.  Setting the course for the rest of the decade, Cadillac becomes the first manufacturer to provide standard power steering on its entire fleet of automobiles.  The company follows this up with a string of safety innovations, including an “autotronic eye” which dims headlamps automatically.  With the Eldorado Convertible tail fins reach their highest expression.  By the end of the decade, they have secured their place as ne of the definitive icons of the fifties.

1960s – Unveiling Innovations in Performance and Comfort

Cadillac continues to make technological and stylistic strides in the sixties.  Self-adjusting brakes are adopted at the beginning of the decade.  The Wreathed Crest probably the most recognized Cadillac emblem of all, is reintroduced on the 1963 Eldorado.  In 1963, Cadillac made front seat belts available, which were made standard by law the following year.  Then , in 1964, introduces automatically-controlled headlamps and redefines luxury with Comfort Control, the industry’s first thermostatically regulated heating, venting, and air-conditioning system.  Over the next few years, variable-ratio power steering, electric seat warmers, and stereo radio are introduced in rapid succession.  In 1965, an American era comes to an end when tail fins are discontinued.

1974 Cadillac

1970s- Debuting Electronically Fuel-Injected Engines

Cadillac inaugurates the seventies by unveiling the  400 HP, 8 2L engine Eldorado.  Its completely redesigned axle boasts the highest torque capacity of any passenger car available at the time.  In 1974, the company pioneers the use of air cushion restraints (air bags) for passenger safety and catalytic converters to lower emissions. Then in 1975, Cadillac becomes the first car manufacturer to provide electronically fuel-injected engines in U.S. production cars.  And in 1978, the Seville ushers in the era of the computerized automobile with an onboard microprocessor in its digital display.

 

 

 

1980

1980s- Bringing Computer Technology to Vehicles

Cadillac faces the dynamism of the eighties head-on with the dramatic Seville Elegante. A modern interpretation of the classic car designs of the thirties and forties, its sleek, sports car physique and distinctive “bustle-back” style are widely imitated throughout  the industry.  On the innovation front, Cadillac becomes the first car manufacturer to use integrated microprocessors to control ignition, fuel injection and vehicle diagnostics.

Reference:  Cadillac.com (2015).  Cadillac Heritage and History.  Retrieved January 30, 2015 from http://www.cadillac.com/experience/history-heritage.html

 

America’s Favorite Cars

The Ford Motor Company

The Corvette

 

 

The Mustang

Ford Mustang


The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car.  Introduced early on April 17, 1964,  and thus dubbed as a “1964½” model by Mustang fans, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker’s most successful launch since the Model A. The Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current fifth generation.

The Mustang created the “pony car” class of American automobiles—sports-car like coupes with long hoods and short rear decks—and gave rise to competitors such as the Chevrolet Camaro, and Pontiac Firebird, AMC Javelin, as well as Chrysler’s revamped Plymouth Barracuda and the first generation Dodge Challenger.  The Mustang is also credited for inspiring the designs of coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to the United States.

The Ford Mustang was brought out five months before the normal start of the 1965 production year. The earliest versions are often referred to as 1964½ models, but VIN coded by Ford and titled as 1965 models with production beginning in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9, 1964 and the new car was introduced to the public on April 17, 1964 at the New York World’s Fair.

Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the nameNajjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second “race” prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.

An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book’s title gave him the idea of adding the “Mustang” name for Ford’s new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar or Torino (and an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford’s research on potential names, Eggert added “Mustang” to the list to be tested by focus groups; “Mustang,” by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: “Suitability as Name for the Special Car.”  The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the “T-5” until December 1978.

Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept for 1974. It has since seen several platform generations and designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original pony car to remain in uninterrupted production over five decades of development and revision.

First generation (1964–1973)

1964 Mustang convertible
As Lee Iacocca’s assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey was the head engineer for the T-5 project—supervising the overall development of the car in a record 18 months—while Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager. The T-5 prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster. This vehicle employed the German Ford Taunus V4 engine and was very similar in appearance to the much later Pontiac Fiero.

It was claimed that the decision to abandon the two-seat design was in part due to the low sales experienced with the 2-seat 1955 Thunderbird. To broaden market appeal it was later remodeled as a four-seat car (with full space for the front bucket seats, as originally planned, and a rear bench seat with significantly less space than was common at the time). A “Fastback 2+2” model traded the conventional trunk space for increased interior volume as well as giving exterior lines similar to those of the second series of the Corvette Sting Ray and European sports cars such as the Jaguar E-Type. The “Fastback 2+2” was not available as a 1964½ model, but was first manufactured on August 17, 1964.

The new design was styled under the direction of Project Design Chief Joe Oros and his team of L. David Ash, Gale Halderman, and John Foster —in Ford’s Lincoln–Mercury Division design studios, which produced the winning design in an intramural design contest instigated by Iacocca.

Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the car was “officially” revealed. A Mustang also appeared in the James Bond film Goldfinger in September 1964.

1967 Mustang fastback
To cut down the development cost and achieve a suggested retail price of US$2,368, the Mustang was based heavily on familiar yet simple components, many of which were already in production for other Ford models. Many (if not most) of the interior, chassis, suspension, and drivetrain components were derived from those used on Ford’s Falcon and Fairlane. This use of common components also shortened the learning curve for assembly and repair workers, while at the same time allowing dealers to pick up the Mustang without also having to spend massive amounts of money on spare parts inventories to support the new car line.

Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the first year. This mark was surpassed in three months from rollout. Another 318,000 would be sold during the model year (a record), and in its first eighteen months, more than one million Mustangs were built. Several changes were made at the traditional opening of the new model year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some models, the introduction of alternators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu in (4.3 l) to 289 cu in (4.7 l) displacement. In the case of at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp (75 kW) 170 cu in (2.8 l) Falcon engine, the rush into production included some unusual quirks, such as the horn ring bearing the ‘Ford Falcon’ logo covered by a trim ring with a ‘Ford Mustang’ logo. These characteristics made enough difference to warrant designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as “1964½” model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has endured with purists.

1969 Mustang hardtop
Ford’s designers began drawing up larger versions even as the original was achieving sales success, and while “Iacocca later complained about the Mustang’s growth, he did oversee the 1967 redesign.”. From 1967 until 1973, the Mustang got bigger but not necessarily more powerfulThe Mustang was facelifted, giving the Mustang a more massive look overall. Front and rear end styling was more pronounced, and the “twin cove” instrument panel offered a thicker crash pad, and larger gauges. Hardtop, fastback and convertible body styles continued as before. Federal safety features were standard that year, including an energy-absorbing steering column and wheel, 4-way emergency flashers, and softer interior knobs. The 1968 models received revised side scoops, steering wheel, and gasoline caps. Side marker lights were also added that year, and cars built after January 1, 1968 included shoulder belts for both front seats. The 1968 models also introduced a new 302 cu in (4.9 L) V8 engine.

The 1969 restyle “added more heft to the body as width and length again increased. Weight went up markedly too.” Due to the larger body and revised front end styling, the 1969 models (but less so in 1970) had a notable aggressive stance. The 1969 models featured “quad headlamps” which disappeared to make way for a wider grille and a return to standard headlamps in the 1970 models. This switch back to standard headlamps was an attempt to tame the aggressive styling of the 1969 model, which some felt was too extreme and hurt its sales. It’s worth noting though that 1969 sales exceeded those in 1970. Starting in 1969, to aid sales and continue the winning formula of the Mustang, a variety of new performance and decorative options became available, including functional (and non-functional) air scoops, cable and pin hood tie downs, and both wing and chin spoilers. Additionally, a variety of performance packages were introduced to appeal to a wider audience, notably the Mach 1, the Boss 302, and Boss 429. The two Boss models were introduced to homologate the engines for racing but received fame on the street and to this day they still demand premium pricing for their pedigree. 1969 was the last year for the GT option. However, a fourth model available only as a hardtop, the Grande, (pronounced ‘grund-ai’) met a degree of success starting in 1969 with its soft ride, “luxurious” trim, 55 pounds (24.9 kg) of extra sound deadening, and simulated wood trim.

1971-2 Mustang coupe
Developed under the watch of “Bunkie” Knudsen, the Mustang evolved “from speed and power” to the growing consumer demand for bigger and heavier “luxury” type designs. “The result were the styling misadventures of 1971–73 … The Mustang grew fat and lazy,” “Ford was out of the go-fast business almost entirely by 1971.” “This was the last major restyling of the first-generation Mustang.” “The cars grew in every dimension except height, and they gained about 800 pounds (363 kg). “The restyling also sought to create the illusion that the cars were even larger.” The 1971 Mustang was nearly 3 inches (76 mm) wider than the 1970, its front and rear track was also widened by 3 inches (76 mm), and its size was most evident in the SportsRoof models with its nearly flat rear roofline and cramped interior with poor visibility for the driver. Performance decreased with sales continuing to decrease as consumers switched to the smaller Pintos and Mavericks. A displeased Iacocca summed up later: “The Mustang market never left us, we left it.”

Second generation (1974–1978)

1974–1978 Mustang II
Lee Iacocca, who had been one of the forces behind the original Mustang, became President of Ford Motor Company in 1970 and ordered a smaller, more fuel-efficient Mustang for 1974. Initially it was to be based on the Ford Maverick, but ultimately was based on the Ford Pinto subcompact.

The new model, called the “Mustang II”, was introduced two months before the first 1973 oil crisis, and its reduced size allowed it to compete against imported sports coupés such as the Japanese Toyota Celica and the European Ford Capri (then Ford-built in Germany and Britain, sold in U.S. by Mercury as a captive import car). First-year sales were 385,993 cars, compared with the original Mustang’s twelve-month sales record of 418,812.

Lee Iacocca wanted the new car, which returned the Mustang to its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and overall styling, to be finished to a high standard, saying it should be “a little jewel.” However not only was it smaller than the original car, but it was also heavier, owing to the addition of equipment needed to meet new U.S. emission and safety regulations. Performance was reduced, and despite the car’s new handling and engineering features the galloping mustang emblem “became a less muscular steed that seemed to be cantering.”

The car was available in coupé and hatchback versions, including a “luxury” Ghia model designed by Ford’s recently acquired Ghia of Italy. The coupe was marketed as the “Hardtop” but in fact had a thin “B” pillar and rear quarter windows that did not roll down. All Mustangs in this generation did feature frameless door glass, however. The “Ghia” featured a thickly padded vinyl roof and smaller rear quarter windows, giving a more formal look. Changes introduced in 1975 included reinstatement of the 302 CID V8 option (after being without a V8 option for the 1974 model year) and availability of an economy option called the “MPG Stallion”. Other changes in appearance and performance came with a “Cobra II” version in 1976 & 1977 and a “King Cobra” in 1978.

Third generation (1979–1993)

1985–1986 Ford Mustang GT
The 1979 Mustang was based on the longer Fox platform (initially developed for the 1978 Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr). The interior was restyled to accommodate four people in comfort despite a smaller rear seat. Body styles included a coupé, (notchback), hatchback, and convertible. Available trim levels included L, GL, GLX, LX, GT, Turbo GT (1983–84), SVO (1984–86), Cobra (1979–81;1989–1993), Cobra R (1993), and Ghia.

The third generation mustang had two different body styles. From 1979 to 1986 the car had a triangle shaped front clip and four headlights, known by enthusiasts as “4 Eyes.” Then in the 1987 to 1993 model years, the front clip had a more round shaping known as the “aero” style. Also in 1986, engines featured EFI (electronic fuel injection) instead of carburetors. Other changes for the 1986 models included an upgraded 8.8-inch (224 mm) rear-end with four shock absorbers.

In response to slumping sales and escalating fuel prices during the early 1980s, a new Mustang was in development. It was to be a variant of the Mazda MX-6 assembled at AutoAlliance International in Flat Rock, Michigan. Enthusiasts wrote to Ford objecting to the proposed change to a front-wheel drive, Japanese-designed Mustang without a V8 option. The result was a major facelift of the existing Mustang in 1987, while the MX-6 variant became the 1989 Ford Probe.


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